The ecosystems of the Great Plains are relatively young, at least, in comparison with other regions in North America. It follows that a stretch of land that was so controversial would have an interesting coverage of flora. The Great American Desert is nothing like the stereotypical sandy wasteland that might come to mind. Almost 3,000 species of vascular plants can be found on the Plains. 430 of those species are types of sunflowers.
Most of these are flowering plants, or angiosperms—dramatic seasonal variation makes it difficult for anything other than grasses and wildflowers to grow. Only 100 or so of the plant species on the Great Plains are endemic, and believe it or not, none of them are grasses. In some places soapweed yucca, prickly pear cactus, buffalo grass and others thrive. Humans have had an impact here, as well. Through management of the land, settlers changed where plants could live and how they could grow. Animals grazed tallgrass and midgrass down to the roots, and natural wildfires that allowed for new growth and regeneration were reduced.
Tumbleweeds, an international symbol of the American West, were introduced by humans. They’re highly invasive, however, and have managed to secure their spot in the ecosystem. Among other introduced plants, the tumbleweeds have been able to hybridize with native plants, resulting in many new varieties. Closer to rivers and other water sources, larger plants like cottonwood trees, willows and shrubs are able to survive. While some flora on the Plains required fires to thrive, others like sumac and dogwood trees, took advantage of the riparian areas and cliffs as protection from fire.
Sage, the namesake of this blog, is abundant across the Great Plains region. Multiple species can be found, some with plants growing up to three feet tall. Prairie sage (among 200 other recorded plants) was used medicinally among the Plains tribes, as well as ceremonially for purification and protection of homes. The scent of sage, especially on a hot day or when burned, is a distinct feature of the area.
Featured photo courtesy of U.S. National Archive:
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